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Saturday, December 13, 2014



                        You are a Project Manager on site where work for 3K.m. long Tunnel has been undertaken. The site is remote and takes about 2 days travel to nearest town. Supervisors, Technicians & Skilled Workers are engaged in dangerous / hazardous work. Absenteeism due to sickness, quarrels, drinking is adding to less output of work and chances of accidents on site are increasing. Management has urged to do something so that time targets can be achieved. Discuss how will you tackle the problem and increase the output of the work.

            The construction site located in remote area and which takes 2 days travel to the nearest town. The work is become hectic so that the working people get tired and resulting that work became more dangerous / hazardous.  There is no source of entertainment and relaxation. It may have basic necessary amenities for living at site but may not have good communication service. Work force is not kept motivated as a result the project is losing both quality and time.
Enlisting the main problems at the site:-
1.  Absenteeism due to sickness
2.  Absenteeism due to drinking
3.  Less output because of quarrels and no proper coordination
4.  Work progress is slow as per estimated time schedule
5.  Possibilities of accidents due to  dangerous / hazardous work
6.  Moral of the workers is less due to no connectivity from the society
                        Human is a social animal which need some basic things which are essential for living like proper accommodation, Food, water, Refreshment, Entertainment and some personal goals or satisfaction. After the fulfilment of the basic needs he think about the second stage the requirement like relations, life style, status, pride, growth and more esteem and comfort to the routine life. Without fulfilment of these need the ONE can be frustrated and demoralized. He will not able to work with concentration and efficiently due to that his work quality and quantity can be decrease.
The Social needs of the persons
                        As we know that, Human is a social animal which live in group and peoples surrounding. In that group there are different types of the persons and he has relationship with the persons who are near to his family and having the common interest. That group of the people called the society. The human need socially interaction between the peoples, communication, sharing of the feeling and recognition in the society. Without these he found himself alone and the work goes hampered. If he does get any personal relation with the people of his common interest the interpersonal tends to decrease and quarrelling start between, which is not good at work site and it effect the work condition of the site which could be more dangerous with adding to the work at dangerous and hazardous site.

The construction site located in remote area and
1.     Lack of manpower planning
2.     The site does not have good living condition due to temporary accommodation
3.     Un-Hygienic surroundings
4.     Chances for the accident due to dangerous / hazardous work
5.     Unavailability of the medicines resulting the Absenteeism due to sickness
6.     Availability and Consumption of Alcohol 
7.     Lack of proper motivation the persons are getting tired and getting frustrated.
Ø Lack of Manpower Management (or) Planning
  • A manpower plan is necessary for management to get information about the manner in which existing personnel are developed, the kind of skill required for various categories of jobs.
  • Prepare a proper schedule of the Project and Assign Resources to each Activity, Identify manpower required for each Task and what is the availability of manpower and how much work has been done till date and how much work is to be done.
  • If manpower is in adequate try to use the available manpower fully so that maximum amount of work to complete and try to complete the Urgent woks such that it does not affect our project duration.
  • Try to motivate the available manpower by giving extra benefits, incentives, appreciate his work if they complete their work in given time.
  • Try to coordinate things and activities properly so the efforts can be put in the right path and avoiding further delay of the project.
Ø Taking care about all safety features to avoid unexpected accidents.
Ø There should be small dispensary and adequate medicines to come out the any risk of the accident and sickness.
Ø Site should have some hygiene conditions and there should be good quality food and pure drinking water.
Ø There should be better living condition at site so at the end of a hectic working day workers can have good relief and relaxation.
·        Understanding the project in all respects Site condition
·        Technical specifications
·        Construction techniques
·        Time frame
Working out the labour component in various parameters of the project by using constants to workout labour requirement Classifying and categorizing labour requirement and various jobs by level of skill, responsibility, nature of work etc. Determine the duration of each job or task at every stage of project. Estimate the number of manpower required in view of the anticipated of absenteeism and labour turnover and the stability factor.
After understanding the factors stated above, following principles should be applied 
o  Care and skill should be exercised in the selection of employees.
o  Introduction to the job should be friendly, skilful and adequate.
o  Each employee should be made to feel that his efforts are really appreciated.
o  Consideration should be given to the effect that each rule and instruction may have on the feelings of employees.
o  Employees should have apart in planning those things that affect their working conditions.
o  Management should be absolutely fair in every policy and every practice.
o  Each employee should have a feeling of pride in the importance of his work and his place in the company.
Ø There should be well developed accommodation and it should be hygienic, clean and better environment, resulting that the illness and sickness of the worker can be minimised. A site office also be built with all necessary requirements, drinking water should be good because most of diseases are spread by water so it is important step to taken care by management.
Ø The safety and security of the worker should be kept in mind to avoid unexpected accidents and injuries.
Ø Arrangement of required medicines and small dispensary to avoid the Absenteeism due to sickness. By this work will be smoothly progressed and number of workers absenteeism will be reduced. Worker who is sick will be taken care by medical team he will be recovered quickly and he can start doing the work so that manpower problem is solved.
Ø Providing proper organization and coordination for different activities and tasks to improve result, quality of the work and completion of the project in time.
Ø Motivate the workers giving them rewards for the better work performance on the site, for that wages, incentives and extra benefits can give to increase their morale.
Ø Consumption and Availability of Alcohol, This is the major problem with labour because they drink daily after work so that they get some relief from whole day work and body pains, but management should try to avoid drinking alcohol or try to get them in limited dose so that they have it n just go for sleep if they get it in excess quantities they will be drinking whole night and next day they will be absenteeism and also after excess drinking they start quarrelling between themselves it’s a big problem for the project manager while quarrelling they may be any accidents that leads to more absenteeism that will also indirectly effects the progress of project. If this quarrelling happens regularly then management has to take some precaution steps to handle that problem. Such as try to avoid the availability of alcohol near the site so that the labour cannot consume much alcohol and this problem is solved and the project may continue smoothly.
Recommendation to Management
Top Management should be more responsible and it should have to properly monitor the progress of work and if any urgent needs at site should be fulfilled as quickly as possible and it should see that the lower and middle management is working properly are not. If any accidents are hazardous situation then top management has to urge to do some help to lower and middle management so that they can overcome the situation they must send some team so that will help them and work will be progress smoothly. Tunnel project is a very large project it will take lot of time to complete the whole project so management has to be well prepared of all the fore coming situations i.e. labours problems, absenteeism etc. Management has to determine the functions of each level of management it should be clear for all the employees and management has to monitor such that each employee is doing his duty properly are not.
1. Determining the objectives
2. Framing policies & making plans to carry out the objectives & policies.
3. Setting up the organizational framework to conduct the operation as per plans.
4. Gathering the resources needed to put the plans into effect.
5. Controlling the operations through the organization.
 6. Placement of the persons in the right positions
1. Understanding the policies framed by top management.
2. Preparing the organizational set-up in their department.
3. Finding out the suitable operative & supervisory personnel & fixing duties & responsibilities to them.
4. Arranging & issuing instructions to the assistants & operatives.
5. Motivating the personnel for higher productivity.
6. Co-operating with other departments for smooth functioning of organizations.
7. Collecting reports, statistical information & other records about the work turned out in the respective departments & forwarding the same to the top management.
8. Recommending to the top management new or revised policies for their departments to obtain better performance.
It is the lowest level in the administrative framework & actual operations are performed here. Foremen supervisors assisted by a no of workers & clerks carryout the actual operations as per schedule. Their authority & responsibility is limited & they have to follow the lines drawn by the higher levels of management. The foremen or supervisors are responsible for carrying out work orders allotted to their respective departments. They pass on the instructions of middle management to the workers. The quality of the workmanship & quality of output will depend upon the hard labour, discipline & loyalty of the operating personnel.

Motivation of Employees in Construction Project 
Motivation is the driving force within individuals that drive them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfil their needs or expectations. Motivators may be intrinsic or extrinsic. An example of a motivator is the self-fulfilment of a worker as a result of performing a task well.
Motivation of labour in Construction Project 
This is important because dwindling productivity is a major problem confronting construction today. Our findings indicate that a highly motivated workforce enhances productivity and project effectiveness. Therefore, a well-planned project seems to be the first — and most important — step to achieve good productivity. Unfortunately, on large industrial projects, craftsmen often receive only minimal amounts of information about their work. Duplication of effort, numerous modifications to plans, and schedules that consistently slip makes it difficult to maintain a motivated workforce. On large power plant projects, changes in design and problems with material availability are considered the major de motivating factors.

Motivational programs 
Project manager must motivate individuals by appealing to their desires to fulfil their needs.  Although some unique motivational programs were found, project manager must motivate someone by providing:-
·        A feeling of pride or satisfaction for one’s ego
·        Security of the opportunity
·        Security of support
·        Security of advancement, if possible
·        Security of promotion, if possible
·        Security of appreciation
·        A mean for doing better job, not a means to keep a job
Motivating employees so that they feel secure on the job is not easy, especially since a project has a finite lifetime, specific methods for producing security in a project environment include:
·        Letting the people know why they are, where they are.
·        Making the individuals feel that belong where they are.
·        Placing individuals in positions for which they are properly trained.
·        Letting the employees know how their effort fit into big picture.
Reward it soon after you see it, this helps to reinforce the notion that you highly prefer the behaviours that you’re currently seeing from your employees. Often the shorter the time between an employee’s action and your reward for the action, the clearer it is to the employee that you highly prefer that action.
Absenteeism and Turnover
The Department of Energy study indicated that the absenteeism and turnover are a relatively minor concern to workmen. Still, they can have a major impact on total project productivity. High rates of absenteeism are a concern, however, to individuals who had to carry extra workloads to compensate for missing crewmembers. The low job satisfaction resulted in high absence from work and high turnover. Thus absenteeism and turnover can be viewed as effects of motivational Activities. The cost of motivational programs is often justified by the reduced absenteeism and turnover. 
Implement at least the basic principles of performance management
Good performance management includes identifying goals, measures to indicate if the goals are being met or not, ongoing attention and feedback about measures towards the goals and corrective actions to redirect activities back toward achieving the goals when necessary. Performance management can focus on organizations, groups, processes in the organization and employees.

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